“In redeploying resources from print to online, newspapers not only have altered longstanding patterns of news productions, but they also have opened the “gates,” in many cases, to user-generated content-enabling, if not always embracing, such things as comments, photos/videos, reader blogs, and even reader-assembled news articles. This evolving spectrum of user contributions to news content can be generically referred to as “citizen journalism”
The revolution in news has taken place drastically in the digitalization of the print media from the journal paper by Lewis, Kaufhol and Lasorsa published in 2010 has clearly stated the development of news deliverance to the public. Citizen journalism is mainly about street journalism or self-governing journalism. It is also a concept of members of the public “playing an active role in the process of collecting, reporting, investigating and broadcasting news information”.
Moreover, based on the research result conducted by Lewis, Kaufhol and Lasorsa in 2010, editors have different opinions on citizen journalism matters. Some of them have positive insights and vice versa. They have four different opinions on this issue; in the negative side, some of them think that citizen journalist does not following the “book” because they do not have a formal education or an actual training on journalism and it is only meant for professionals. Also, they think that it will be “over cook” if the citizen journalist get involved in writing the news. In the other side of the road, some editors support the citizen journalist because they think that they will make better news if they (news journalist) insert in pictures from the communities, using ideas from them or welcoming readers comment. For example, in The Star and News Straits Times they have a comment or letter column for the public to write their opinion on any related issues that concerns them. And some of the print media journalist thinks that the citizen journalist as a supporting tools for a good piece of news.
Agenda or motive is the x-factor of why an article was produced. People write for many purposes and one of them will be personal interest. The article wrote may change people opinion and people understand about certain issues. In reference to the article in NSTP dated September 30, 2011 titled ‘Hudud issue may cost Pas in long run’, the writers definitely wants the reader to acknowledge others opinions regarding this matter. For example, the writers have selected three people and interviewed them regarding this issue, and all of them are academician from same field.
The academician agreed on one thing, which is the implementation of hudud by Pas will caused them a long run. They agreed that hudud issue is more on political propaganda since the election is around the corner. This explains the actual condition on hudud implementation. The cause or agents of this issue will obviously be the opposition because they are trying to get attentions from the ‘rakyat’. The academician also highlighted that the implementation issue is lack of consensus visibly demonstrates that the competing interest and options still exists within the other opposition parties.
But somehow, in the later part of the article, the writers have stated the solution by the opposition party that they will do the implementation starting with one state and Kelantan will be the first state that will implement the hudud law once the general election is over. The Spiritual Leader of the opposition said that the law cannot be implemented yet because the Federal Government has stops them for doing so.
In a nut shell, the writers are framing on the effect that the implementation issue of the Hudud Law is not that clear because it is more on political influence on the implementation rather than doing the implementation for real.
Issues: Implementation of hudud because it is an Islamic Law and nearly half Malaysians is Muslims
Actors: The opposition
Editing is one of the processes of journalism because sometimes there is a need for writer to edit, and check on the style of writing, capitalization, abbreviations, and punctuations. All these will attract the public attention. Writer need to edit for briefness, have to watch for what happen? What does the story need to tell? Does the story have redundancy? repetitions and etcetera.
I have select one article from The Malaysia Insider title Hudud as a right and democratic manifestation by Zulqarnain Lukman and for the article is quite lengthy and wordy. The article is basically an opinion wrote by the writer based on Art Harun article. The article is mainly about the obstacle in the constitution for Hudud implementation. Below is the shorten version of the two pages article.
The opposition to Hudud based on the Constitution is secular and it is the barrier that we are facing in order to implement the God-inspired laws. Art Harun argued that the state has no power to implement Hudud because it is not under their legislation and it is obviously falls under the federal law. No one should argue on this fact. He also said that our constitution should not be influenced by the Reid Commission and did not say anything on the matter. IN order for a constitution to survive, it must move together with the time and adapt to the reality.
It appears, Hudud to be implemented in Kelantan is a long request and as a democratic constitution the Federal Constitution must be read and implemented along this line. For one thing, Kelantan has made it clear on their stand and it has in mind is just for Muslims in the state. This can be made crystal clear in the Federal legislations such as the Penal Code. He also highlighted that our constitution has to respond to the popular will, especially when it has been expressed openly in all sort of media.
First consideration that any writer should take into account will be the audience. Audience is the centre of attraction because without them no one will acknowledge what the writer writes. Identifying the audience is crucial, also writer should look into their target group, they can’t just write for everyone, because everyone will be in a long list of categorisation. Writer should identify the audience and the target group because these are some of the guidance that can help them to produce or write better.
In reference to the article title ‘Muslims must know DAP’s hudud stand’ (NSTP – Oct 8, 11) the writer focuses on:
1- Muslim’s who wants to join DAP
2- The individual that have their stand on religious matters / people who concern about Islamic principles
3- DAP members who support hudud
4- All parties in Pakatan
5- people in Kelantan that want hudud to be implemented in their state
The writer did not explain further about what is hudud, and if this law will be implemented and how will people goes about it. He/She has omitted this important piece of explanation. Why? Did he/she do this on purpose? Definitely not! This issue has been discussed on and off since 1992. He/She assume that the audience will have basic information about Hudud Law as on of the Islamic Law that has clearly stated in the Holy Quran.
** All video attached explains further on Hudud via video for audience better understanding. Listen carefully to the voice tone because by using certain tone, audience can feel the interest of the speaker regarding this matter. The body language that they used also expresses their concern about the implementation of Hudud in Malaysia.
Pakatan Hudud discomfort
Ridhuan Tee: Hudud has to be implemented ‘by force’
DPM: Malaysia not yet ready for hudud
Najib: Hudud row exposes Pakatan’s flaws
Wallahualam bi shawab
‘Muslims must know DAP’s hudud stand’